Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s entry on Implicit Bias.
Brownstein, Michael, “Implicit Bias”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2019/entries/implicit-bias/ (*link repaired — P)
Addendum, April 11, 2021, as follows:
Implicit (unconscious) bias tests, such as the Harvard IAT, and implicit bias training, are ubiquitous in university EDI programs. But one should pause before uncritically endorsing EDI implicit/unconscious bias initiatives, especially of the “I attended a workshop and therefore I’m qualified” variety — a phenomenon common to well-intentioned advocacy-heavy committees.
The following are reasons to be cautious about implicit/unconscious bias tests and initiatives (click on the blue links):
1)Examples of the ubiquity of implicit/unconscious bias testing/training in universities:
i)Canada Research Chairs (CRC) Unconscious Bias Training Module.
ii)A recommendation for the Harvard IAT from an article from Folio, University of Alberta, “How to Check Your Unconscious Bias,” Lewis Kelly, May 1, 2018.
iii)Implicit bias, hiring, and retention: Equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) resource guide. Simon Fraser University. Access April 11, 2021. A full page of implicit (unconscious) bias material.
2) An article about the limits and potential of the IAT, including a cautionary note from “Calvin Lai, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University and director of research at Project Implicit.”
German Lopez, “For years, this popular test measured anyone’s racial bias. But it might not work after all”, Vox, March 7, 2017. Accessed, April 11, 2021.
“It turns out the IAT might not tell individuals much about their individual bias.”
3)Another cautionary article:
Patricia Lonergan, “A common test to evaluate people’s implicit bias has been ‘oversold,‘ U of T researcher says”, U of T News, November 26, 2019.
The researcher named in this article is Ulrich Schimmack.
Schimmack created the Replicability-Index blog in 2014. An entry dated December 13, 2020 calls to defund Implicit Bias Research.
“The purpose of the R-Index blog is to increase the replicability of published results in psychological science.”
4) Tom Bartlett, “Can We Really Measure Implicit Bias? Maybe Not”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 5, 2017. Accessed April 12, 2021.
An overview of the controversy surrounding the Harvard IAT, the correlation — if any and to what degree — between implicit bias and behaviour, and whether these can be altered.
** This post received four ‘likes’ before the addendum and were given for the artwork. They do not necessarily ‘like’ the added content.